Mindfulness as a treatment for gambling disorder: Current directions and issues
AbstractMindfulness is a form of meditation that derives from Buddhist practice and is one of the fastest growing areas of psychological research. Studies investigating the role of mindfulness in the treatment of behavioral addictions have, to date, primarily focused on gambling disorder. Recent pilot studies and clinical case studies have demonstrated that weekly mindfulness therapy sessions can lead to clinically significant change among individuals with gambling problems. This purpose of this paper is to appraise current directions in gambling disorder research as they relates to mindfulness approaches, and discuss issues that are likely to hinder the wider acceptance of mindfulness as a treatment for gambling disorder. It is concluded that although preliminary findings indicate that there are applications for mindfulness approaches in the treatment of gambling disorder, further empirical and clinical research utilizing larger-sample controlled study designs is clearly needed.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Text Revision (Fifth Edition). Washington, D.C.: Author.
Cahn, B. R., Delorme, A., & Polich, J. (2010). Occipital gamma activation during Vipassana meditation. Cognitive Processing, 11, 39-56.
Chen, P., Jindani, F., Perry, J., & Turner, N. L. (2014). Mindfulness and problem gambling treatment. Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health, 4(1), 1-17.
Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2011). Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research, 187, 441-453.
de Lisle, S., Dowling, N. A., & Allen, J.S. (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for problem gambling. Clinical Case Studies, 10, 210-228.
de Lisle, S. M., Dowling, N. A. & Allen, J. S. (2012). Mindfulness and problem gambling: A review of the literature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28, 719–739.
de Lisle, S., Dowling, N. A., & Allen, J.S. (2014). Relationship between mindfulness and problem gambling behaviour. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12, 206-225.
Derezotes, D. (2000). Evaluation of yoga and meditation trainings with adolescent sex offenders. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 17, 97-113.
Gillespie, S. M., Mitchell, I. J., Fisher, D., & Beech, A. R. (2012). Treating disturbed emotional regulation in sexual offenders: The potential applications of mindful self-regulation and controlled breathing techniques. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 333-343.
Gooding, P. & Tarrier, N. (2009). A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioural interventions to reduce problem gambling: Hedging our bets? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 592–607.
Hodgins, D. C., Currie, S. R., el-Guebaly, N., & Diskin, K. (2007). Does providing extended relapse prevention bibliotherapy to problem gamblers improve outcome. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 41-54.
Howells, K., Tennant, A., Day, A., & Elmer, R. (2010). Mindfulness in forensic mental health; Does it have a role? Mindfulness, 1, 4-9.
Johnson, D. P., Penn, D. L., Fredrickson, B. L., Kring, A. M., Meyer, P. S., Catalino, L. I., & Brantley, M. (2011). A pilot study of loving-kindness meditation for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 129, 137-140.
Kelly, B. D. (2008). Buddhist psychology, psychotherapy and the brain: A critical introduction. Transcultural Psychiatry, 45, 5-30.
Lakey, C. E., Campbell, K. W., Brown, K. W., & Goodie, A. S. (2007) Dispositional mindfulness as a predictor of the severity of gambling outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1698-1710.
Lorains, F. K., Cowlishaw, S., & Thomas, S. A. (2011). Prevalence of comorbid disorders in problem and pathological gambling: systematic review and meta-analysis of population surveys. Addiction, 106, 490-498.
Marlatt, A. G. (2002). Buddhist philosophy and the treatment of addictive behaviours. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 9, 44-50.
Mehwash, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2010). Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13, 313-316.
Parhami, I., Siani, A., Rosenthal, R., & Fong, T. (2013). Pathological gambling, problem gambling and sleep complaints: An Analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey: Replication (NCS-R). Journal of Gambling Studies, 29, 241-253.
Reid, R. C., Bramen, J. E., Anderson, A., & Cohen, M. S. (2014). Mindfulness, emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and stress proneness among hypersexual patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70, 313-321.
Rickwood, D., Blaszczynski, A., Delfabbro, P., Dowling, N. & Heading, K. (2010). The psychology of gambling. InPsych, 32, 11–21.
Riley, B. (2014) Experiential avoidance mediates the association between thought suppression and mindfulness with problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 30, 163-171.
Rungreangkulkji, S., Wongtakee, W., & Thongyot, S. (2011). Buddhist Group Therapy for diabetes patients with depressive symptoms. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 25, 195-205.
Sharpe, L. (2004). Patterns of autonomic arousal in imaginal situations of winning and losing in problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 95-104.
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W. & Griffiths, M. D. (2013a). Meditation as medication: Are attitudes changing? British Journal of General Practice, 617, 654.
Shonin, E, Van Gordon, W. & Griffiths, M. D. (2013b). Buddhist philosophy for the treatment of problem gambling. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2, 63-71.
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014a). Mindfulness as a treatment for behavioural addiction. Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy, 5: e122. doi: 10.4172/2155-6105.1000e122.
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths M. D. (2014b). The emerging role of Buddhism in clinical psychology: Towards effective integration. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6, 123-137.
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M.D. (2014c). Are there risks associated with using mindfulness for the treatment of psychopathology? Clinical Practice, 11, 389-382.
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014d). The treatment of workaholism with Meditation Awareness Training: A Case Study. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 10, 193-195.
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths M. D. (2014e). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) for the treatment of co-occurring schizophrenia with pathological gambling: A case study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12, 181-196.
Sumpter, M. T., Monk-Turner, E., & Turner, C. (2009). The benefits of meditation practice in the correctional setting. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 15, 47-57.
Toneatto, T., Pillai, S., & Courtice, E. L. (2014). Mindfulness-enhanced Cognitive Behavior Therapy for problem gambling: A controlled pilot study, International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12, 197-205
Toneatto, T., Vettese, L., & Nguyen, L (2007) The role of mindfulness in the cognitive-behavioural treatment of problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Issues, 19, 91-101.
Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Sumich, A., Sundin, E., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) for psychological wellbeing in a sub-clinical sample of university students: A controlled pilot study. Mindfulness, 5, 381-391.
Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Griffiths, M. D., & Singh, N. N. (2015). There is only one mindfulness: Why science and Buddhism need to work together. Mindfulness, 6, 49-56.
Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: A practice manual and conceptual guide. Chichester: Wiley.
I warrant, on behalf of myself and my co-authors, that:
- the article is original, has not been formally published in any other peer-reviewed journal, is not under consideration by any other journal and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights;
- I am/we are the sole author(s) of the article and have full authority to enter into this agreement and in granting rights to the Asia Pacific Association for Gambling Studies(APAGS), are not in breach of any other obligation. If the law requires that the article be published in the public domain, I/we will notify APAGS at the time of submission upon which clauses 3 through 4 inclusive do not apply;
- the article contains nothing that is unlawful, libelous, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract or of confidence or of commitment given to secrecy;
- I/we have taken due care to ensure the integrity of the article. To my/our - and currently accepted scientific - knowledge all statements contained in it purporting to be facts are true and any formula or instruction contained in the article will not, if followed accurately, cause any injury, illness or damage to the user.
And I agree to the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) agreement, under which all Journal of Gambling and Commercial Gaming Research articles are licensed.