Validation of the Revised Inventory of Gambling Motives, Attitudes, and Behaviours (GMAB-R) Among Chinese University Students


  • Yuan-Yuan Wang University of Macau
  • Kwok-Kit Tong University of Macau
  • Anise M. S. Wu University of Macau
  • Shu Yu University of Macau


The Inventory of Gambling Motives, Attitudes, and Behaviours (GMAB) has been shown to be a valid and reliable tool for measuring gambling cognitions and behaviors among both adult and adolescent gamblers. The present study aimed to validate its revised version (GMAB-R) with a sample of 427 university students in the Macao Special Administrative Region, China. The GMAB-R consists of six factors in the motivational domain, four in the attitudinal domain, and six in the behavioral domain. Our findings suggest that, after minor refinements, the psychometric properties of the GMAB-R remain satisfactory, and the inventory can be used among university students. The subscales in the attitudinal domain were found to be applicable to nongamblers as well. The GMAB-R can be used to facilitate future research in understanding emerging youth gambling and student gambling problems, as well as in prevention efforts.

Author Biographies

Yuan-Yuan Wang, University of Macau

University of Macau

Kwok-Kit Tong, University of Macau

Associate Professor

Deparment of Psychology

University of Macau

Anise M. S. Wu, University of Macau

Associate Professor

Deparment of Psychology

University of Macau

Shu Yu, University of Macau

Doctoral Student

Deparment of Psychology

University of Macau


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