Erroneous Perceptions of Chinese Baccarat Players: Evidence from Guidebooks
Baccarat, as the most popular gambling game, is also the one to which the majority of pathological gamblers who sought help are addicted in Macau. This paper documents the cognitive distortions of Chinese Baccarat gamblers from guidebooks written by five experienced Chinese gamblers. The analyses of their descriptions of Baccarat and their observations about other Chinese gamblers show that the objective of the vast majority of Chinese Baccarat players is to make quick money rather than view Baccarat as a form of entertainment. Further, cognitive distortions—such as the gambler’s fallacy, illusion of control, illusory correlation, interpretive bias, and availability of others’ wins—are pervasive. Some erroneous perceptions have Baccarat-specific representations, such as following trends, money management tricks, and following winners. These findings may contribute to prevention/awareness education and counseling services for pathological gamblers.
Abbott, M., Binde, P., Hodgins, D., Korn, D., Pereira, A., Volberg, R., & Williams, R. (2013). Conceptual framework of harmful gambling: An international collaboration. Guelph, Ontario, Canada.: The Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre (OPGRC).
Bjerg, O. (2010). Problem gambling in poker: Money, rationality and control in a skill-based social game. International Gambling Studies, 10(3), 239-254.
Chan, C. C., & Ohtsuka, K. (2013). The clinical and social construction of the paichais of macau. Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health, 3(1), 1-11.
Chen, B. (2004). Introduction to baccarat. Taipei: DowTien Publishing Limited Corporation.
Chen, B. (2005a). Baccarat betting techniques. Taipei: DowTien Publishing Limited Corporation.
Chen, B. (2005b). Baccarat hall. Taipei: DowTien Publishing Limited Corporation.
Chen, B. (2010a). Supreme baccarat: Five-episode-eight-scale strategy. Taipei: Warmth Publishing Group.
Chen, B. (2010b). Winner takes it all--roadmap to baccarat fortune. Taipei: Warmth Publishing Group.
Dai, Z. (2010). Baccarat winning formula. Taipei: Tongyo Cultural Affairs Corporation Ltd.
Delfabbro, P. H. (2004). The stubborn logic of regular gamblers:
Obstacles and dilemmas in cognitive gambling research. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(1), 1-21. doi:10.1023/B:JOGS.0000016701.17146.d0
Delfabbro, P. H., Lahn, J., & Grabosky, P. (2006). It’s not what you know, but how you use it: Statistical knowledge and adolescent problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22(2), 179-193. doi:10.1007/s10899-006-9009-5
Dowling, N., Smith, D., & Thomas, T. (2005). Electronic gaming machines: Are they the ?crack-cocaine? of gambling? Addiction, 100(1), 33-45. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.00962.x
Gaboury, A., & Ladouceur, R. (1989). Erroneous perceptions and gambling. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 4(4), 411-420.
Goodie, A. S. (2005). The role of perceived control and overconfidence in pathological gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21(4), 481.
Griffiths, M. D. (1994). The role of cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling. British Journal of Psychology, 85(3), 351-369. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1994.tb02529.x
Grosjean, J. (2007). Much ado about baccara. In S. N. Ethier, & W.
R. Eadington (Eds.), Optimal play: Mathematical studies of games and gambling (pp. 143-174). Reno: Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, Reno.
Hannum, R. C., & Cabot, A. N. (2001). Practical casino math. Reno: Institute for the Study of Gambling & Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada.
Jacobsen, L. H., Knudsen, A. K., Krogh, E., Pallesen, S., & Molde, H. (2007). An overview of cognitive mechanisms in pathological gambling. Nordic Psychology, 59(4), 347-361.
Jacobson, E. (2011). Card counting the dragon side bet in EZ baccarat. Retrieved from http://wizardofodds.com/games/baccarat/dragon-bet/
Ladouceur, R., Gaboury, A., Dumont, M., & Rochette, P. (1988). Gambling: Relationship between the frequency of wins and irrational thinking. The Journal of Psychology, 122(4), 409-414. doi:10.1080/00223980.1988.9915527
Ladouceur, R., & Walker, M. (1996). A cognitive perspective on gambling. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
Langer, E. J. (1975). The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(2), 311-328. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2061
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). USA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Resilience Centre. (2007). Annual report of 2006. (). Macau: Social Welfare Bureau.
Resilience Centre. (2008). Annual report of 2007. (). Macau: Social Welfare Bureau.
Resilience Centre. (2009). Annual report of 2008. (). Macau: Social Welfare Bureau.
Resilience Centre. (2010). Annual report of 2009. (). Macau: Social Welfare Bureau.
Resilience Centre. (2011). Annual report of 2010. (). Macau: Social Welfare Bureau.
Resilience Centre. (2012). Annual report of 2011. (). Macau: Social Welfare Bureau.
Resilience Centre. (2013). Annual report of 2012. (). Macau: Social Welfare Bureau.
Resilience Centre. (2014). Annual report of 2013. (). Macau: Social Welfare Bureau.
Roney, C. J. R., & Trick, L. M. (2003). Grouping and gambling: A gestalt approach to understanding the gambler's fallacy. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne De Psychologie Expérimentale, 57(2), 69-75. doi:10.1037/h0087414
Scott, A. W. (1 July 2011). Fate in the cards: Understanding baccarat trends. Retrieved from http://www.worldgamingmag.com/en/gaming/gaming-insights/item/70-fate-in-the-cards-understanding-baccarat-trends
Sévigny, S., & Ladouceur, R. (2003). Gamblers' irrational thinking about chance events: The ‘double switching’ concept. International Gambling Studies, 3(2), 149-161. doi:10.1080/1356347032000142261
Shackleford, M. (2008). Baccarat card counting - effects of removing a card
Toneatto, T. (1999). Cognitive psychopathology of problem gambling. Substance use & Misuse, 34(11), 1593-1604. doi:doi:10.3109/10826089909039417
Toneatto, T., Blitz-Miller, T., Calderwood, K., Dragonetti, R., & Tsanos, A. (1997). Cognitive distortions in heavy gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13(3), 253-266. doi:10.1023/a:1024983300428
Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1971). Belief in the law of small numbers. Psychological Bulletin, 76(2), 105.
Zeong, L. (n.d.). Introduction to and winning tips for baccarat. Macao: n.p.
I warrant, on behalf of myself and my co-authors, that:
- the article is original, has not been formally published in any other peer-reviewed journal, is not under consideration by any other journal and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights;
- I am/we are the sole author(s) of the article and have full authority to enter into this agreement and in granting rights to the Asia Pacific Association for Gambling Studies(APAGS), are not in breach of any other obligation. If the law requires that the article be published in the public domain, I/we will notify APAGS at the time of submission upon which clauses 3 through 4 inclusive do not apply;
- the article contains nothing that is unlawful, libelous, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract or of confidence or of commitment given to secrecy;
- I/we have taken due care to ensure the integrity of the article. To my/our - and currently accepted scientific - knowledge all statements contained in it purporting to be facts are true and any formula or instruction contained in the article will not, if followed accurately, cause any injury, illness or damage to the user.
And I agree to the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) agreement, under which all Journal of Gambling and Commercial Gaming Research articles are licensed.