Effects of Outcome Expectancies on Chinese Adolescents’ Gambling Intention
AbstractThe effect of expectancy on adolescents’ intention to engage in risky behaviors has long been recognized, yet it is largely neglected in the gambling literature. Wong and Tsang (2012) recently sought to develop the Chinese Adolescent Gambling Expectancy Scale (CAGES) that could evaluate the strength of adolescents’ positive and negative expectancies of gambling. Five expectancy domains for gambling were identified. The present study aimed to examine the impact of gambling outcome expectancy on Chinese adolescents’ gambling intention. Survey data from 1,218 Chinese adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years were analyzed using regression analyses. Results showed that the five factors of gambling expectancy in a group were significant predictors of gambling intention. The model explained 18% of the variance in gambling intention. Among the five factors, social benefit was the strongest predictor of Chinese adolescents’ gambling intention. The current finding has important implications for prevention measures for adolescent gambling.
Aarons, G. A., Brown, S. A., Stice, E., & Coe, M. T. (2001). Psychometric evaluation of the marijuana and stimulant expectancy questionnaires for adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 219–236.
Abbott, M. W., Williams, M., & Volberg, R. (2004). A prospective study of problem and regular non-problem gamblers living in the community. Substance Use and Misuse, 39(6), 855-884.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviors. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Boys, A., Marsden, J., Griffiths, P., Fountain, J., Stillwell, G., & Strang, J. (1999). Substance use among young people: the relationship between perceived functions and intentions. Addiction, 94, 1043-1050.
Delfabbro, P., Lahn, J., & Grabosky, P. (2005). Further evidence concerning the prevalence of adolescent gambling and problem gambling in Australia: A study of the ACT. International Gambling Studies, 5(2), 209–228.
Earlyewine, M. (1995). Expectancy accessibility, alcohol expectancies, and intention to consume alcohol. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25, 933-943.
Fishbein, M., & Azjen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior. Reading, MN: Addison-Wesley.
Fromme, K., & D’Amico, E. J. (2000). Measuring adolescent alcohol outcome expectancies. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14, 206–212
Goldberg, J., & Fischhoff, B. (2000). The long-term risks in the short-term benefits: perceptions of potentially addictive behaviors. Healthy Psychology, 19, 299-303.
Goldberg, J. H., Halpern-Felsher, B. L., & Millstein, S. G. (2002). Beyond invulnerability: the importance of benefits in adolescents’ decision to drink alcohol. Health Psychology, 21, 477-484.
Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (1998b). Adolescent gambling behavior: a prevalence study and examination of the correlates associated with excessive gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies. 14, 319-345.
Hardoon, K., Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (2004). Psychosocial variables associated with adolescent gambling: a model for problem gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(2), 170–179.
Johnston, L. D. (2003). Alcohol and illicit drug: the role of risk perceptions. In D. Romer (Ed.), Reducing adolescent risk: towards an integrated approach (pp. 56-74). London: Sage Publications.
Jones, B. T., Corbin, W., & Fromme, K. (2001). A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption. Addiction, 96, 57-72.
Magoon, M. E., & Ingersoll, G. M. (2006). Parental modeling, attachment and supervision as moderators of adolescent gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22, 1–22.
Oei, T. P. S., Lin, J., & Raylu, N. (2007a). Validation of the Chinese version of the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-C). Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 309−322
Ólason, D. T., Skarphedinsson, G. A., Jonsdottir, J. E., Mikaelsson, M., & Gretarsson, S. J. (2006). Prevalence estimates of gambling and problem gambling among 13- to 15-year-old adolescents in
Reykjavík: An examination of correlates of problem gambling and different accessibility to electronic gambling machines in Iceland. Journal of Gambling Issues, 18, 39-55.
Rogers, R. W. (1975). A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Psychology, 91, 93-114.
Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Splevins, K., Mireskandari, S., Clayton, K., & Blaszczynski, A. (2010). Prevalence of adolescent problem gambling, related harms and help-seeking behaviours among an Australian population. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 189–204.
Skenderina, J. J., Siegel, J. T., Crano, W. D., Alvaro, E. E., & Lac, A. (2008). Expectancy change and adolescents’ intentions to use marijuana. Psychology of Addiction Behaviours, 22, 563-569.
Stacy, A. W., Widaman, K. F., & Marlatt, G. A. (1990). Expectancy models of alcohol use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 918-928.
Stinchfield, R. (2004). Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors associated with youth gambling and problem gambling. In
J. Derevensky, & R. Gupta (Eds.), Gambling problems in youth: Theoretical and applied perspectives (pp. 27–39). NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. (2009). Retrieved 20 July 2009 from http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/tech_doc/hkpsg/full/ch3/pdf/ch3.pdf
Tolman, E. G. (1932). Purposive behavior in animals and man. New York, NY: Appletone-Century Crofts.
Vachon, J., Vitaro, F., Wanner, B., & Tremblay, R. E. (2004). Adolescent gambling: Relationships with parent gambling and parenting practices. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 3–9.
Wickwire, E., Jr., Whelan, J. P., Meyers, A., & Murray, D. (2007a). Environmental correlates of gambling behavior in urban adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 179–190.
Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R., & Fulkerson, J. (1993). Toward the development of an adolescent gambling problem severity scale. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9(1), 63-84.
Wong, S. K. S., & Tsang, K. M. S. (2012b). Development and validation of the Chinese adolescent gambling expectancy scale. International Gambling Studies, 12, 309-329.
Wynne, H., Smith, G. and Jacobs, D. (1996) Adolescent Gambling and Problem Gambling in Alberta. A report prepared for the Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission. Wynne Resources Ltd, Edmonton, Alberta.
I warrant, on behalf of myself and my co-authors, that:
- the article is original, has not been formally published in any other peer-reviewed journal, is not under consideration by any other journal and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights;
- I am/we are the sole author(s) of the article and have full authority to enter into this agreement and in granting rights to the Asia Pacific Association for Gambling Studies(APAGS), are not in breach of any other obligation. If the law requires that the article be published in the public domain, I/we will notify APAGS at the time of submission upon which clauses 3 through 4 inclusive do not apply;
- the article contains nothing that is unlawful, libelous, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract or of confidence or of commitment given to secrecy;
- I/we have taken due care to ensure the integrity of the article. To my/our - and currently accepted scientific - knowledge all statements contained in it purporting to be facts are true and any formula or instruction contained in the article will not, if followed accurately, cause any injury, illness or damage to the user.
And I agree to the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) agreement, under which all Journal of Gambling and Commercial Gaming Research articles are licensed.